Thursday, 25 January 2018

Reported Speech (Revision and Exercises)

Hi, there!
It's time to revise "Reported speech". The basic idea is that you use 'Reported Speech' (or estilo indirecto in Spanish) for telling what other people told.

Here is a video you should watch because it offers many examples of tense shift.

You could practise the reported speech with the following exercises.
Here's a bunch of exercises to practise reporting verbs.

Modal Verbs: Ability. Advice, Necessity and Obligation. Possibility and Certainty.

Hi, everyone! We're going to revise the form and use of modal verbs.


The first thing we have to know is the type of modal verbs there are:
Pure modals
be able to
have better
have to


ought to



need ***
need to
*** need is a special verb since as a modal it is almost always negative such as you needn't come to work tomorrow
The pure modals are used just exactly as the auxiliary verbs in the sentence word order.
Modal / Auxiliary
Manner, place and time
so stressed
for driving

to school
a lift

Their main difference is that pure modals are invariable forms, that is, we can't use them in the past or future forms.
Instead, the semi-modals can be used in the past, future and the rest of tenses too.


For understanding the meaning and use of the modal verbs we can establish different uses: ability; advice, necessity, and obligation; possibility and certainty.


We express ability by means of the modals can and could and the semi-modal be able to.
Here a presentation to learn more about the modals of ability:


Advice, necessity, and obligation

For expressing advice we have the modals:
  • should and ought to (ought to isn't usually used in the negative and interrogative form) to express advice.
  • need to to express necessity (only in the affirmative form).
  • needn't (without to) and the don't/doesn't have to are used to make clear there's no need to do something.
  • must and have to express obligation.
  • mustn't for expressing prohibition (obligation of not doing)
For more information, you can watch these presentations
  • Advice

  • Necessity


  • Obligation


Possibility and certainty

The modal verbs we use to express possibility and certainty are may, might, can, could, must
  • to express possibility in the present or the future we may (may not), might (mightn't) and could.
  • To express logical deduction we use must (in the affirmative form) or can't (in the negative form).
  • When we are sure something is true we use must.
  • When we are sure something is impossible we use can't.


Wednesday, 25 October 2017

Past Simple for Beginners.


Usamos el Past Simple para hablar del pasado. En español se puede traducir por el pretérito indefinido (I danced – Yo bailé) o el pretérito imperfecto (I danced – yo bailaba) Lo más importante es que es el tiempo en el que contamos las cosas que nos sucedieron, es decir, las narraciones.


Para construir el Past Simple debes saber dos cosas, una buena (good news) y otra mala (bad news):

Good News :)

El Past Simple es muy fácil de construir, fíjate bien:
I danced.
I didn't dance.
Did I dance?
You danced.
You didn't dance.
Did you dance?
He/She/It danced.
He/She/It didn't dance.
Did he/she/it dance?
We danced.
We didn't dance.
Did we dance?
You danced.
You didn't dance.
Did you dance?
They danced.
They didn't dance.
Did they dance?
* Como ves sólo tienes que añadir -ed al final del verbo regular para la forma afirmativa
** La forma negativa se forma con el auxiliar didn't + infinitive
*** La forma interrogativa se hace con el auxiliar did delante del sujeto

Bad News :|

Además de los verbos regulares existen otros que son irregulares. Se llaman así porque su forma del Past Simple en afirmativa es diferente.
Estas formas debes aprenderlas de oído, y cuando digo de oído quiero decir que es mejor aprendarlas escuchándola. Mucha gente se las aprende de memoria leyendo listas de verbos irregulares... y al final no se familiarizan con su pronunciación y no son capaces de entender cuando las escuchan.
To Do es un verbo irregular, y su Past Simple es Did. Pero solo para la forma afirmativa (Don't panic!), fíjate bien:
I did some homework.
I didn't do any homework.
Did I do any homework?
You did some homework.
You didn't do any homework.
Did you do any homework?
He/She/It did some homework.
He/She/It didn't do any homework.
Did he/she/it do any homework?
We did some homework.
We didn't do any homework.
Did we do any homework?
You did some homework.
You didn't do any homework.
Did you do any homework?
They did some homework.
They didn't do any homework.
Did they do any homework?


Puedes aprender pronunciación de verbos regulares e irregulares rapeando con Fluency MC:
Y en este otro Fluency MC te dice la Base Form y tú tienes que decir el Past Simple y el Past Participle:

-ED Pronunciation
Con éste aprenderás las a pronunciar bien todos los verbos regulares en past simple cuando acaban en -ED.

Friday, 22 September 2017

Tuesday, 9 May 2017

Obligation and Advice in the song “Should I Stay or Should I go?: Have (got) to / Should

With this activity you can learn the use of the modal verbs HAVE (GOT) TO and SHOULD:
  • We use SHOULD to express ADVICE.
  • We use HAVE TO to express OBLIGATION in written and oral communication. But we usually use HAVE GOT TO in oral communication, for example in song.
    So it's very common to find HAVE GOT TO in many different versions, as they appear above:
    • have got to = 've got to = got to = gotta
Can you find more examples of SHOULD and HAVE (GOT) TO in the song's lyrics?
Remember that have got to can appear in different versions.

Here is the official video by band who sings it: The Clash.

These are the answers for the activity.

Tuesday, 4 April 2017

Writing about the Parts of the House and Furniture

Vamos a revisar vocabulario de las Parts of the House. Para ello utilizaremos un video y los conectores:
  • and / but
  • First, / Then, / After that, / Next, / Finally
También aprenderemos el uso de There's / There are
1. First, let's have a look at the video:
2. Then, let's answer the question: Usa los conectores para First, / Then, / After that, / Next, / Finally, para indicar el orden en que salen las habitaciones.
Where's the bee?
  1. First, the bee is in the living room but it's not in the bedroom.
  2. Next, The bee is in the bedroom but it's not in the kitchen
  3. Then, ...
  4. After, ...
  5. ...
  6. ...
  7. ...
  8. Finally, ...
Repite con cada escena cambiando el nombre de las habitaciones y practica la pronunciación.

3. Finally, practise There's / There are with pieces of furniture, for example
  1. What is there in the living room? / There's a sofa, a table, a picture and a picture.
  2. What is there in the kitchen? / There's an oven, a sink, and a cupboard.
Puedes repetir todas las veces que necesites hasta adquirir el vocabulario que estás trabajando

Good luck! and May Force be with you!

Thursday, 9 February 2017

Present Continuous Use and Form. 1 ESO

This post is about the present continuous. Watch the videos and do the tasks.
PROCESS. / Actions in progress
  • Imagina una acción en proceso y dibújala como se muestra en el vídeo. Luego pasa al siguiente vídeo.
FORM. / How to make the present continous.

  • Translate the sentences into English.
    • Estoy jugando al Minecraft ahora mismo.
    • Estamos leyendo "La Historia Interminable" este mes en clase.